The most common form of bladder cancer is known as transitional cell bladder cancer (TCC), where cancer originates within the transitional cells that make up the lining of the bladder. Other bladder cancers may be known as invasive bladder cancer, where a tumour grows into the muscle wall of the bladder. Invasive bladder cancer may also originate from the inner lining of the bladder where a small growth will form; this is known as papillary cancer and, if untreated, may go on to become invasive bladder cancer. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is an early stage bladder cancer; CIS cells can grow rapidly and if untreated can become invasive. Squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma are rarer types of bladder cancer, which are likely to develop to an invasive level.
Things to look out for
Symptoms include but are not limited to:
- Haematuria (blood in urine) – this common symptom may be sporadic or may be consistent; at times blood is not visible and is only picked up through a urine test
- Pain when passing urine, commonly a burning sensation
- Passing urine more urgently
These symptoms are common in various medical conditions and do not necessarily indicate cancer, however due to the nature of cancer it is important to rule this out as a cause.